The differing morphology of the right and left atrial appendages. Schematic - Figure 4.
On Freud Psychoanalysis was given birth by Sigmund Freud at the turn of the century.
Freud conceptualized the mind, metaphorically, as an ancient, buried ruin which had to been unearthed much like an archeologist would unearth the treasures of an ancient civilization.
Freud's influence can be traced from his hard-core natural science background as a student of neurology, as well as his rarely acknowledged debt to Franz Brentano also a teacher of Edmund Husserlwho taught Freud to understand that consciousness is always intentional.
This tension between a more phenomenological approach to understanding the mind and Freud's inclination toward natural scientific explanation is a tension which exists in all of his work and writings, as well as throughout all of psychoanalytic theory following Freud. In fact, this tension between understanding and explanation can be said to be a tension which exists, whether acknowledged or not, in all of the human sciences see, for example, Dilthey.
Freud's version of psychoanalysis had its predecessor in the work with hysterics conducted by neurologists Jean-Martin Charcot and Hippolyte Bernheim, who, using hypnosis, discovered that the origins of hysteria were mental rather than overtly physiological.
Freud's colleague, Josef Breuer, first began using his modified technique of hypnosis to treat the famous hysteric patient with the alias 'Anna O,' who we now know to be Bertha Pappenheim.
This technique involved placing the patient in a hypnotic trance and removing the symptoms through the use of posthypnotic suggestion. Freud, a poor hypnotist, became especially adept at listening to these patients, and, along with Breuer, discovered that the origins of the hysteria appeared to involve emotionally charged events in the patients' past.
When the patient, through talking, followed associations in her memory, she was able to recover the forgotten event, which led to the cure. Freud eventually gave up the process of using hypnotism for the use of a technique he came to call "free association," in which the patient was encouraged to put aside all inhibitions and follow her associations, which would eventually, even without hypnosis, lead to the recovery of unconscious memory.
From the period of to roughlyFreud's innovations led to the development of his theory, all of which were developed from his clinical work with patients.
Initially theoretical formulations led to the topographic model of the psyche, which Freud categorized into three different subsections: Further, Freud became more and more sophisticated in his technique of psychoanalysis, and he became particularly adept at using his patients's subjective impressions of him to help the patient to discover the origins of the unconscious memory or memories which led to the symptoms from which she suffered.
It followed that Freud developed a theory that patients resisted remembering the trauma, and this 'resistance' was evident in disruptions of the free association process.
Such disruptions constituted what Freud called 'defenses,' and, most notably, the defenses involved what Freud called 'transference,' the transference of conflictual thoughts and feelings to the analyst. Freud also came to acknowledge that unconscious events are traceable in other phenomena, as well, including dreams, slips of the tongue, and in jokes.
From his work with patients, Freud was eventually led to develop a more and more sophisticated theory of the human psyche which became increasingly understood according to a developmental model.
Freud, by observing his patients, found that many of the memories uncovered by his patients were sexual in nature and reverted back to early childhood memories. From these observations, Freud developed his controversial theory of childhood sexuality. Freud eventually justified these observations with a generalized theory of an instinctual drive, which became the foundation for his theory.
At first, Freud felt that such instincts were largely sexual in nature. Later, he conceded that instincts also involved aggressive drives, as well as sexual drives.
In any case, Freud's development model, a theory of 'psychosexual development,' traced the development of childhood seuxality through various stages, organized according to 'erogenous zones,' bodily zones which are highly sexually charged at certain stages in development: Using the metaphor of a hydraulic system, Freud imagined the instincts as consisting of a form of energy he called 'libido.
This 'primary process thinking' largely consists of phantasy, omnipotent thinking, and exists outside of linear time -- in short, it demands immediate gratification.
As the child develops through the various psychosexual stages -- oral, anal, and phallic -- the child's libido is increasingly 'repressed' by parental figures who train the child to delay gratification and to channel the libido in ways that are socially appropriate.
This pure libidinal drive Freud called the 'id. With the formation of the unconscious, what is left-over in the conscious of the person is called 'secondary process thinking' by Freud.
Central to Freud's theory is the "Oedipal complex. With the onset of the phallic stage, Freud argued, the child's genitals become libidinally charged, and this leads to a desire for the parent of the opposite sex and a feeling of competitiveness with the parent of the same sex.
The particular organization of these conflicts depends on how the child has negotiated the earlier psychosexual stages. Freud felt that the Oedipus complex is ultimately resolved, at least for males, by "castration anxiety. From this resolution of the conflict, the child develops an "ideal" self based on the internalization of parental values.
This "ego ideal" results in the develop of the "super-ego," which constitutes the often unrealistic ideals toward which the child will strive and which inevitably conflict with the libidinal drives of the 'id.
Thus, the "ego" is governed by the "reality principle," which must use various defenses to negotiate between the unrealistic motives of the "superego" "ego ideal" and the "id," governed by the "pleasure principle.
Ultimately, for Freud, the human being is in perpetual conflict with itself, torn between one's animal nature and the ideals of one's culture internalized with the values of one's parents. As mentioned previously, Freud was very protective of his theory, and he entered into conflicts with various colleagues who offered alternative theoretical perspectives, including Alfred AdlerCarl JungOtto Rankand Sandor Ferenczi.Frank H.
Netter, MD’s Atlas of Human Anatomy (also known as Netter’s Atlas of Human Anatomy) is undoubtedly the best human anatomy book in the world. Facial Topography: Clinical Anatomy of the Face by Joel E. Pessa MD (Author) The difference in the shapes of facial structures and their relationship to one another determines the unique and distinct appearance of each individual.
TOPOGRAPHIC ANATOMY OF THE HEAD - ORAL EXAM QUESTIONS PART I. 1. Frontal region 2. Parietal region 3. Temporal region Motor inervation of the face and oral cavity Topographic anatomy of the suprahyoid muscles Topographic anatomy of the infrahyoid muscles Anatomy of the tooth Parotid gland and its topographic anatomy.
The human nose is the most protruding part of the face that bears the nostrils, and is the first organ of the respiratory alphabetnyc.com nose is also the principal organ in the olfactory alphabetnyc.com shape of the nose is determined by the nasal bones and the nasal cartilages, including the nasal septum which separates the nostrils and divides the nasal cavity into two.
Basic concepts of topographical anatomy 2. Topographical anatomy of the head: head regions base of the skull – internal surface facial regions, regiones faciei (anterior and lateral) Head, caput head vs. face Topographical Anatomy of the Head_ENG. Anatomy of the Heart.
Venous blood returns to the heart via the superior and inferior vena cave into the right atrium, where it is stored during right ventricular systole.