Distinguish prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination. Distinguish old-fashioned, blatant biases from contemporary, subtle biases. Understand old-fashioned biases such as social dominance orientation and right-wing.
Prejudice refers to the attitudes and feelings—whether positive or negative and whether conscious or non-conscious—that people have about members of other groups. In contrast, stereotypes have traditionally been defined as specific beliefs about a group, such as descriptions of what members of a particular group look like, how they behave, or their abilities.
As such, stereotypes are cognitive representations of how members of a group are similar to one another and different from members of other groups. Prejudice and stereotyping are generally considered to be the product of adaptive processes that simplify an otherwise complex world so that people can devote more cognitive resources to other tasks.
However, despite any cognitively adaptive function they may serve, using these mental shortcuts when making decisions about other individuals can have serious negative ramifications.
The horrible mistreatment of particular groups of people in recent history, such as that of Jews, African Americans, women, and homosexuals, has been the major impetus for the study of prejudice and stereotyping.
Thus, the original conceptions and experiments were concerned almost entirely with conscious, negative attitudes and explicitly discriminatory actions. However, as the social acceptability of prejudice and stereotypes has changed, the manifestations of prejudice and stereotypes have also changed.
In response to these changes, and given that people who reject prejudice and stereotyping can still unwittingly internalize stereotypic representations, the study of prejudice and stereotyping has recently moved to include beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors that could be considered positive and not obviously or overtly prejudiced.
Importantly, even when prejudice and stereotypes are ostensibly positive e. Because of these new conceptions of bias, there have also been methodological adaptations in the study of prejudice and stereotyping that move beyond the conscious attitudes and behaviors of individuals to measure their implicit prejudice and stereotypes as well.
This article gives a quick tour through the social psychological study of prejudice and stereotyping to inform the reader about its theoretical background, measurement, and interventions aimed to reduce prejudice.
General Overviews There are several books and chapters that offer a broad view of the social psychological research on prejudice and stereotyping. There are two texts that are excellent for undergraduates. First, Whitley and Kite covers the general field of research on stereotyping and prejudice, providing an excellent primer for theory and research on the causes and consequences of prejudice and stereotyping.
Second, Stangor is a collection of key social psychological readings on stereotypes and prejudice. The key readings text is especially useful, as it can be assigned in sections for a general class or used in its entirety for a class specifically on prejudice.
Beyond the introductory text and primer for key readings, though potentially unsuitable for undergraduate use, there are three chapters from the Handbook of Social Psychology that are useful for researchers who want to get an understanding of the progression of research and focus of current theory and research.
Although there is some overlap in the content of the three handbook chapters, each chapter makes a notably unique contribution that warrants their inclusion.
Fiske provides a history and thorough review of influential perspectives on prejudice and stereotyping. Expanding on FiskeYzerbyt and Demoulin provides an additional in-depth perspective on theories of how groups are created and sustained. Dovidio and Gaertner focuses on the bases of group-based biases and provides a thorough consideration of theory and research on stereotype change and prejudice reduction.
Finally, in addition to the aforementioned chapters, Dovidio, et al. In Handbook of social psychology. Edited by Susan T. Focuses mainly on the psychological foundations of intergroup bias and how to resolve those biases in order to reduce prejudice.
There are discussions about the categorization process, explicit versus implicit biases and what mediates and moderates those biases.Measures of implicit prejudice predicted biased reactions and behavior significantly better than measures of explicit prejudice did Example of an IAT Measures implicit racism toward African Americans, for example, by comparing how quickly or slowly participants associate African American cues with negative and positive concepts compared to European American cues.
The principles of social psychology, including the ABCs—affect, behavior, and cognition—apply to the study of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination, and social psychologists have expended substantial research efforts studying these concepts (Figure ). Stereotypes and Prejudice.
Cognitive schemas can result in stereotypes and contribute to prejudice. Stereotypes. Stereotypes are beliefs about people based on their membership in a particular group. Stereotypes can be positive, negative, or neutral. Stereotypes based on gender, ethnicity, or occupation are common in many societies.
Culture, Prejudice, Racism, and Discrimination Summary and Keywords Prejudice is a broad social phenomenon and area of research, complicated by the fact that intolerance exists in internal cognitions but is manifest in symbol usage (verbal, nonverbal, mediated), law and policy, and social and organizational practice.
Prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination: Theoretical and Empirical Overview John F. Dovidio, Miles Hewstone, the key concepts of prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination, highlighting how bias can occur at individual, institutional, and cultural levels.
neural processes contribute to biases.
Prejudice and stereotyping are biases that work together to create and maintain social inequality. Prejudice refers to the attitudes and feelings—whether positive or negative and whether conscious or non-conscious—that people have about members of other groups.
In contrast, stereotypes have.