His father was a Lieutenant Colonel of the Scots Guard  who was also part of the British Bobsleigh at the Winter Olympics national team and his grandfather was the American impressionist painter William Samuel Horton. Horton's sister-in-law is renowned Nigerian sculptor Sokari Douglas Campabout whose work he has written. He viewed the two as having a similar approach of methodically unveiling the complex to achieve order and understanding from chaos.
Theory of religious economy The rational choice theory has been applied to religions, among others by the sociologists Rodney Stark — and William Sims Bainbridge —. They can be divided into specific compensators compensators for the failure to achieve specific goalsand general compensators compensators for failure to achieve any goal.
As it becomes clear that the goals of the movement will not be achieved by natural means at least within their lifetimesmembers of the movement will look to the supernatural to achieve what cannot be achieved naturally.
The new religious beliefs are compensators for the failure to achieve the original goals. Examples of this include the counterculture movement in America: Most religions start out their lives as cults or sectsi.
Over time, they tend to either die out, or become more established, mainstream and in less tension with society. Cults are new groups with a new novel theologywhile sects are attempts to return mainstream religions to what the sect views as their original purity.
Mainstream established groups are called denominations. The comments below about cult formation apply equally well to sect formation. There are four models of cult formation: The founder suffers from psychological problems, which they resolve through the founding of the religion.
The development of the religion is for them a form of self-therapy, or self-medication.
According to this model, most founders of new religions already have experience in several religious groups before they begin their own. They take ideas from the pre-existing religions, and try to improve on them to make them more popular. Members of the religious group spend less and less time with people outside the group, and more and more time with each other within it.
The level of affection and emotional bonding between members of a group increases, and their emotional bonds to members outside the group diminish. According to the social model, when a social implosion occurs, the group will naturally develop a new theology and rituals to accompany it.
Some religions are better described by one model than another, though all apply to differing degrees to all religions. Once a cult or sect has been founded, the next problem for the founder is to convert new members to it. Prime candidates for religious conversion are those with an openness to religion, but who do not belong or fit well in any existing religious group.
Those with no religion or no interest in religion are difficult to convert, especially since the cult and sect beliefs are so extreme by the standards of the surrounding society.
But those already happy members of a religious group are difficult to convert as well, since they have strong social links to their preexisting religion and are unlikely to want to sever them in order to join a new one. The best candidates for religious conversion are those who are members of or have been associated with religious groups thereby showing an interest or openness to religionyet exist on the fringe of these groups, without strong social ties to prevent them from joining a new group.
Potential converts vary in their level of social connection. New religions best spread through pre-existing friendship networks. Converts who are marginal with few friends are easy to convert, but having few friends to convert they cannot add much to the further growth of the organization.
Converts with a large social network are harder to convert, since they tend to have more invested in mainstream society; but once converted they yield many new followers through their friendship network. Cults initially can have quite high growth rates; but as the social networks that initially feed them are exhausted, their growth rate falls quickly.
On the other hand, the rate of growth is exponential ignoring the limited supply of potential converts: But nonetheless it can take a very long time for religions to grow to a large size by natural growth.
This often leads to cult leaders giving up after several decades, and withdrawing the cult from the world. It is difficult for cults and sects to maintain their initial enthusiasm for more than about a generation. As children are born into the cult or sect, members begin to demand a more stable life.
When this happens, cults tend to lose or de-emphasise many of their more radical beliefs, and become more open to the surrounding society; they then become denominations.
The theory of religious economy sees different religious organizations competing for followers in a religious economy, much like the way businesses compete for consumers in a commercial economy.
Theorists assert that a true religious economy is the result of religious pluralismgiving the population a wider variety of choices in religion. According to the theory, the more religions there are, the more likely the population is to be religious and hereby contradicting the secularization thesis.PhD thesis.
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The United States Army Intelligence Support Activity (USAISA), frequently shortened to Intelligence Support Activity or ISA, and nicknamed The Activity, is a United. Sociological and anthropological theories about religion generally attempt to explain the origin and function of religion.
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