This is due to the fact that each country possesses different sub-systems that make it unique from others. This can be easily visualised in a Venn diagram; where each country represents a set that intersects, but does not necessarily coincide, with other sets. Therefore, below I will shed light on these areas of intersection similarities in developed countries and try to compare them with their developing counterparts:
The relationship among these constructs are explored and several conceptual issues for future research are cited. The depth as well as the breadth of research in this area is very encouraging. Given the importance of investigating consumer behavior in a cross-cultural context, it is surprising that there is no systematic assessment of the constructs and methodologies used to study consumer behavior differences cross-culturally.
The purpose of this paper is to 1 provide a brief historical background concerning the evolution of cross-cultural consumer behavior research, 2 identify constructs from the behavioral science discipline most relevant for the study of consumers across cultures, and 3 offer suggestions for future research.
Other published studies during this period primarily dealt with the institutional aspect of marketing in other countries and made very little reference, if any, to consumers for example see BeattieSchneiderand Waterhouse The interest in foreign markets began to grow in the s as evidenced by two events.
The Boston Conference on distribution placed heavy emphasis on papers dealing with foreign marketing and the June, conference of the American Marketing Association had a strong international flavor Buell Nevertheless, studies of the s continued to focus on the institutional characteristics of foreign market rather than on consumer behavior differences.
The nature of published articles in the s did not change to any great extent from the reported studies of. Toward the end of the s, articles dealing with cultural differences began to appear in marketing journals. In general, the studies of the s can be characterized as descriptive and non-empirical.
During the s, the number of cross-cultural analytical studies increased dramatically. Consumer differences were studied from a variety of perspectives using numerous concepts and theories.
Cross-cultural studies of the s have included: Despite the incompleteness of the list of studies reported here, the variety of topics examined to assess cross-cultural differences is impressive. Also note the emphasis on methodological concerns of cross-cultural research. While reviewing these cross-cultural studies in detail is beyond the scope of this paper, a selected number of constructs that seem to be most relevant to the study of cons-umer behavior in cross-cultural context is examined in greater detail.
Inmarketing ranked fourth among all disciplines in its contribution to diffusion research Rogers For the purpose of this paper, a brief overview of innovativeness is given.
Rogers and Shoemaker define innovativeness as "the degree to which an individual is relatively earlier in adopting an innovation than other members of his system.
From a methodological standpoint, the use of temporal dimension to measure innovativeness has been criticized because it is rather difficult to determine precisely when an innovation was introduced into the social system Hirschman Nevertheless, a conceptual strength of the definition is its "dependence on the notion that an innovation is an idea, practice, or object perceived as new by the individual" Hirschman Recently, Midgley and Dowlingoffered another conceptualization of the concept that suggests innovativeness is "the degree to which an individual is receptive to new ideas and makes innovation decisions independently of the communicated experience of others.
Like many other social science constructs, innovativeness is conceptualized and measured as a single construct, but it is, in reality, a multidimensional phenomena.
Many studies within the marketing tradition have identified several other constructs that are positively related to innovativeness Robertson These include receptiveness to new products and ideas, risk taking, cosmopoliteness, opinion leadership, social mobility, social participation, other-directedness, receptiveness to change, personal efficacy, and self confidence Robertson ; Rogers A review of the literature by Rogers reveals that innovativeness as a construct is particularly relevant for cross-cultural investigations.
This is because innovativeness is thought to be the individual-level equivalent of the multifaceted phenomena of societal modernization Rogers an approach to studying (or marketing to) cultures that stresses commonalities across cultures expectancy theory the perspective that behavior is largely "pulled" by expectations of achieving desirable outcomes, or positive incentives, rather than .
Chapter 2 Consumer Behavior. STUDY. PLAY. so marketers must adapt not only across but within cultures. C. The United States is comprised of a culture that accepts a wide array of personal behaviors and attitudes, foods, dress, and other products and services.
Thus, the United States values _____. CROSS-CULTURALISSUES IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR National cultures that celebrate the values ofindependence, as in the United States, Canada, Germany, and Denmark, are typically categorized as individu.
In the last decade, there has been extensive research on how individuals from Western cultures (e.g., American culture) and those from Eastern cultures (e.g., Chinese culture) differ on the type and intensity of emotions experienced.
Consumer behavior is not converging across countries, and therefore it is of even greater importance to understand, and be able to respond to, differences in behavior. Key Features • Offers a view on consumer behavior that is truly global: This unique focus shows students how to be successful in a global environment.
Research shows that culture, sub-culture, and social classes are particularly important on consumer buying behavior. Cultures differ in demographics, language, non-verbal communication, and values.