All of the leaflets were printed in Okinawa. We had an intervalometer rigged in the back of the airplane which would flash a light every so-many seconds, and the Loadmasters would kick out a box or two.
Hieu Find articles by Nguyen T. Received Nov 14; Accepted Feb 2. Copyright Hue et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Understanding the host genetic susceptibility to typhoid fever may provide a better understanding of pathogenesis and help in the development of new therapeutics and vaccines. Here we determine the genetic variation within the human TLR4 gene encoding the principal receptor for bacterial endotoxin recognition in typhoid fever patients.
It is possible that genetic variants of TLR4 could detrimentally affect the innate immune response against S.
Two SNPs, TA and CG, were more frequent in typhoid cases than in controls however due to their low allele frequencies they showed borderline significance TA: Four missense mutations and one promoter SNP AG were only present in typhoid cases, albeit at low allele frequencies.
Here we determined the extent of genetic variation within TLR4 in a Vietnamese population and suggest that TLR4 may be involved in defense against typhoid fever in this population. Introduction Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi S. Typhiis a Gram negative bacterium that can cause typhoid fever .
Worldwide typhoid fever is a serious public health problem, with an estimated 22 million cases, resulting indeaths . The burden of disease lies mainly in developing countries where the provision of sanitary conditions can be inadequate.
It has been reported that multi-drug resistant strains of S. Typhi are emerging, posing a real threat to the current antimicrobial treatment of typhoid .
To be in a position to develop novel therapeutic agents or new vaccines for typhoid it is imperative that the immunological mechanisms of disease protection are thoroughly understood.
The availability of the human genome sequence and advances in molecular technologies allows the study of protective disease mechanisms using a genetic approach.
Genetic susceptibility to typhoid fever has until recently been predominately studied in a mouse model of infection. Initially it was observed that certain inbred mouse strains were innately susceptible to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium S.
Typhimuriumthe bacterium that causes a systemic disease in mice that mimics human typhoid . Infecting Tlr4-deficient mice intraperitoneally and orally with S. Typhimurium confirmed that Tlr4 contributes to murine host defense against Salmonella .
Human TLR4 is recognized as the principal receptor for bacterial endotoxin recognition.
TLRs thereby play an essential role in innate and adaptive immunity  with TLR4 contributing to the early detection and immune response to Gram-negative infection. Co-segregating missense mutations AspGly and ThrIlethat affect the extracellular domain of TLR4, were originally reported to be associated with a blunted response to inhaled LPS in humans .
Controversially, a more recent study demonstrated that monocytes from AspGly heterozygotes exhibit no deficit in LPS recognition . A number of studies however have shown that TLR4 AspGly is associated with a variety of infectious diseases, including septic shock RSV Legionnaires' disease  and malaria but is not associated with others, such as tuberculosis  or meningococcal disease  see table 1.
Although TLR4 AspGly was not associated with meningococcal disease, it has been subsequently reported that other rare TLR4 mutations may contribute to meningococcal susceptibility .
Prior to this finding, Smirnova et al  had investigated the sequence variation throughout TLR4 to find an unusual excess of low frequency amino acid variants. Table 1 Summary of TLR4 polymorphisms associated with infectious diseases.The similarities and differences in culinary arts between Vietnam and Korea Now a day, Vietnamese and Korean culinary become more and more popular in Vietnam, .
Introduction. The Uses of History for Global Criminology For many criminologists, Japan's famously low crime rates (up to the s at least) came to symbolize the differences between the West and Asia on questions of (in Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City and Dong Nai) and interviewed senior civil servants in national level ministries—the.
The Periphery of China --Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Tibet, and Mongolia. The principle behind this page and this index is that of China as the "Middle Kingdom", with the rest of the world arranged around it.
Phi Ho of Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City with expertise in: Water Science, Irrigation and Water Management and Environmental Science.
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